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1G  – The first generation of wireless services which were mostly analogue and included technology standards such as AMPS.

2G – Also known as Personal Communications Services (PCS), second generation wireless service refers to the digital mobile phone technologies that emerged and were deployed during the 1990’s, delivering both voice and data transmissions. 2G technology standards include Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and (Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). It also offers auxiliary services such as data, fax and SMS.

302 Redirect – the process of a server sending a browser the location of a requested ad, rather than sending the ad itself. Ad servers use 302 redirects to allow them to track activities such as ad requests or ad clicks.

3G – 3G is third-generation technology in the context of mobile phone standards. The services associated with 3G include wide-area wireless voice and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. In marketing 3G services, video-telephone is often identified as a primary application for 3G. Already deployed by mobile operators in most of Europe, East Asia, and North America. Supports much higher data speeds than previous mobile networks, in some cases approaching wired broadband connections. The third generation wireless service promises to provide high data speeds, always-on data access and greater voice capacity. The high data speeds enable full motion video, high-speed internet access and video-conferencing, and are measured in Mbps. 3G technology standards include UMTS, based on WCDMA technology (quite often the two terms are used interchangeably) and CDMA2000, which is the evolution of the earlier CDMA 2G technology. UMTS standard is generally preferred by countries that use GSM network. The data transmission rates range from 144 kbps to more than 2 mbps.

3GPP – 3GPP is a grouping of international standards bodies, operators and vendors. 3GPP specifications are based on evolved GSM specifications. The scope of 3GPP includes standardizing the WCDMA based members of the IMT-2000 family and Long Term Evolution (LTE) to form the next generation mobile network standard technology.

3GPP2 – Similar to 3GPP, except that this is the counterpart responsible for the standardization of the CDMA2000-based members of the IMT-2000 family.

ABANDONMENT – when a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction.

ABORT – when a Web server does not successfully transfer a unit of content or ad to a browser. This is usually caused by a user hitting the stop button or clicking on another link prior to the completion of a download.

Acquisition Rate – Percentage of respondents who opted in to participate in a mobile initiative/campaign. Acquisition rate = total participants/total audience.

ACTIVITY AUDIT – independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics.

AD AUDIENCE the number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

AD BANNER – a graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement.

AD BLOCKER – software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

AD CAMPAIGN AUDIT – an activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

AD CENTRIC MEASUREMENT – audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server’s own server logs.

AD DISPLAY/AD DELIVERED when an ad is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.

AD DOWNLOAD when an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.

AD IMPRESSION – An advertisement impression transpires each time a consumer is exposed to an advertisement (either prepended or appended to an SMS message, on mobile web or web page, within a video clip, or related media).

AD IMPRESSION RATIO – Click-throughs divided by ad impressions.

AD INSERTION when an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

AD MATERIALS – the creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.

AD NETWORK – an aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks are the sales representatives for the Web sites within the network.

AD RECALL – a measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents is exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time is asked if they remember the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.

AD REQUEST the request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

AD SERVING – the delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

AD SPACE – Any space within an application that has been reserved for the display of advertising. Its dimensions and location within an application typically define an ad space.  Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.

AD STREAM- the series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).

AD TRANSFERS the successful display of an advertiser’s Web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or “transfers” the user’s browser to an advertiser’s Web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser’s Web site, an ad transfer is recorded.

AD UNIT – Any defined advertising vehicle that can appear in an ad space inside of an application. For example, a rectangular banner is considered to be a common type of ad unit.

AD VIEW when the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

AD/ADVERTISEMENT – a commercial message targeted to an advertiser’s customer or prospect.

ADDRESS – a unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a Web site or marked with an @ for an e-mail address. Literally, it is how one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet.

ADVERTISEMENT – Any collection of text, graphics or multimedia content displayed and accessible inside of an application for the purposes of promoting a commercial brand, product or service.

ADVERTISEMENT ACTION – Any activity associated with a Advertisement that enables interactivity and communication between the advertiser and the consumer. For example, common actions include clicking on a phone number to call the advertiser, a hyperlink that takes the consumer to an advertiser’s mobile web portal, or a link that adds the advertiser’s contact information to the consumer’s phone book.

ADVERTISER Individual or organization that places a paid promotion within media for the purpose of promoting commercial messages, goods or services.

AFFILIATE MARKETING – an agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

AFFINITY MARKETING – selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by e-mail promotions, SMS, MMS, online or offline advertising.

AGGREGATOR – An organization that acts as a middleman between application and content providers, and mobile carriers.  Provides message traffic throughput to multiple wireless operators or other aggregators; provides mobile initiative campaign oversight, and administration, as well as billing services.

AIRTIME (see also Talk Time) – The number of connected minutes consumed by a mobile subscriber while placing and receiving calls on his/her mobile phone. Carriers calculate customer bills based on airtime minutes used during a specific period of time.

AKA – Also Known As

ALERT TONE – An audio product that is triggered by and sounds on the handset upon a specific event, such as an incoming text message, voice message, calendar event, or other event to which the handset owner wishes to be alerted. Length of tone varies based on mobile carrier requirements. Often traditional ringtones or other audio products can be used as an alert tone.

ALERTS – Notifications, typically in the form of a text or multimedia message, containing time-sensitive information (event details, weather, news, services updates) that are pushed to a mobile subscriber who has opted-in to receive this information. Note: If the mobile subscriber has not opted in to receive said information, the notification would be considered SPAM.

ALT tag – The text displayed while an image is being loaded. ALT tags are particularly relevant for mobile SEO (Search Engine Optimization), since many people turn off image downloads in their mobile browsers to preserve bandwidth.

ALTERNATE TEXT – a word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting “stop” in their browser prior to the transfer of all images. Also appears as .balloon text. when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.

ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ENTRY (AMOE ) – A no cost or low cost means for an individual to enter a sweepstakes or contest.

ANCHOR TEXT – THE ACTUAL TEXT OF A LINK – i.e. the portion that you see underlined. An important ranking factor which uses this text, and the keywords used in it, to make assumptions on the relevance of the content being linked to.

ANIMATED GIF – an animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed sequentially, giving the appearance of movement.

ANONYMIZER – an intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.

APPLET – a small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user.

APPLICABLE BROWSER – any browser an ad will impact, regardless of whether it will play the ad.

APPLICATION (DOWNLOADABLE APPLICATION ) – Software solutions that power the business logic for mobile marketing initiative(s).

APPLICATION ORIGINATED MESSAGE – A text or multimedia message sent from a network based mobile application, typically to a handset.

APPLICATION PROVIDER – An organization that offers network based software solutions “applications,” or dowloadable applications that enable the business logic behind mobile marketing initiatives. Application providers also provide the technology platform for common short code service applications.

APPLICATION TERMINATED – A text or multimedia message received by a network based mobile application, typically sent by a handset.

ARTIFACTING – distortion that is introduced into audio or video by the compression algorithm (codec). Compressed images may have stray pixels that were not present in the original image. See codec.

ASPECT RATIO – the width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).

ASYNCHRONOUS A type of two-way communication that occurs with a time delay, allowing participants to respond at their own convenience.

AUDIT third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet and/or mobile activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.

AUDITOR – a third party independent organization that performs audits.

AVATARA graphical representation of an individual in a game or other virtual world or environment

AVERAGE REVENUE PER USER (ARPU ) – A commonly used financial benchmark to measure the average revenue generated by a mobile carrier’s mobile subscriber, or “user.”

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